Have you ever wondered how different it is to borrow money from your friends or family as against a bank? Before a bank credits your money, they need to know what is your company’s worth, what you own, and what you owe. Banks pose similar inquiries for all organizations requesting a loan.
Those three inquiries are the principal parts of a Classified balance sheet. What a business owns is called assets, what it owes is displayed as liabilities, and how much the business is worth equivalents equity.
A classified balance sheet includes liabilities, assets, and equity, along with subcategories, for example, current and long -term to give an idea about how long an organization will own their assets or owe liabilities. Let’s take a look at what Classified Balance sheets are.
Here is an overview of the key points for the Classified Balance Sheet:
- Classified Balance sheet Meaning
- Classified balance sheet format
- What is the Accounting Equation?
- Classified balance sheet Vs balance sheet
- Classified balance sheet template
- Benefits of Classified balance sheet
- How helpful is the Classified balance sheet format?
Classified Balance Sheet Meaning
A classified balance sheet has liability, asset, and equity sections in subcategories for ease in usability. All in all, it segregates every one of the balance sheet accounts into simpler subgroups to make a more valuable and significant report. There's no standard set of subcategories that should be utilized. The board can decide on what kinds of subcategories to use, yet the most recognized happen to be long-term and current.
This format is significant in light of the fact that it gives users more data about the organization and its activities. Investors can use these subcategories in their financial investigation of the business. For example, they can use metrics like the current ratio to survey the organization's worth by looking at the current assets and liabilities.
This kind of analysis wouldn't be easy with a traditional balance sheet that isn't grouped into current and long-term classifications. Small organizations use an unclassified balance sheet, but if you're searching for a report that gives similar information in a more definite form, you'll need to set up a classified balance sheet.
Most accounting applications permit you to pick what sort of balance sheet you wish to generate, yet if you have various assets or liabilities you would want to track, you must choose the classified balance sheet.
Traditional balance sheets don't make particular categorization between various sections, it only has sections for a company’s assets and liabilities. A classified balance sheet splits assets into various classes of assets, like fixed assets, current assets, properties, investments, long-term assets, and intangible assets. Likewise, a classified balance sheet segregates an organization's liabilities into classes like long-term liabilities, short-term liabilities, and equity.
Classified balance sheet format: Asset, Liability, and the Equity section
The characterizations utilized will change according to the kind of business you own, and there is no single method for designing a format of a classified balance sheet appropriately.
The Asset Section is classified into three subcategories: current, fixed assets, and other assets.
These are the assets that should be sold or consumed to use cash well within the current operating cycle. These are basically required to support the day-by-day tasks or the core business of the firm. A significant feature is that these can be easily liquidated to generate cash, which helps a business in managing any financial liquidity crunches. Despite the fact that they differ from one industry to another.
- Accounts receivable
- cash equivalents
- Short-term Investments
Fixed Assets comprise property, equipment, and plant, that are long-term in nature and are utilized to create labor and products for the organization. These long-term assets are usually depreciated over the long run and reported at their verifiable cost along with the associated accumulated depreciation.
Fixed Assets are those long-term assets that are used in the current financial year as well as many years further. They are one-time strategic investments that are required for the long-term survival of the business. For an IT industry, assets will be laptops, desktops, land, and so forth yet for a manufacturing firm, it tends to be equipment, hardware, and Machinery. A fundamental attribute of fixed assets is that they are accounted for at their book value and regularly get depreciated with time.
- Accumulated Depreciation
- Furniture and Fixtures
The third group is the summary of intangible assets that the firm has procured over some time. These include copyrights, goodwill, patents, trademarks, and so forth. They have a multi-period life. A fundamental feature of intangible assets that segregates them from fixed assets is that they don't depreciate with time. Usually, their value increments as the firm develop and invests more in the business.
- Accumulated Amortization
The liabilities segment is split into two fundamental subcategories: the current and long-term liability. Segregating an organization's liabilities includes categorizing everything as a current or long-term liability. A current liability is one that the organization should take care of within a year's time or the organization's operating cycle.
An organization utilizes current assets for taking care of current liabilities since it might effectively access current assets. Long-term liabilities incorporate loans the organization doesn't have to pay off within a year's time, although the organization might have to make a few installments on the loan by the next year.
Current liabilities incorporate all debts that will become due for the current time. Basically, this is the amount of principle needed to be repaid in the following year. The most widely recognized current liabilities are accrued expenses and Accounts payable.
Current liabilities like current assets have an existence of the current financial year or the current operating cycle. These are usually short debts that are expected to be taken care of utilizing current assets or by creating a new current liability. The important part is that these need to be settled fast and not be kept pending for later installments.
- Tax liabilities
- Accrued Expenses
- Accounts payable
- Loans Payable (Current portion)
Long Term Liabilities
The long-term section incorporates the commitments that are not due in the following year. These commitments could be 5, 10, or 30-year notes. A part of these long-term notes will be expected in the following year. Along these lines, this part is constantly reflected in the current section.
Long-term liability is commitments that should be repaid later on, perhaps past the operating cycle or the current financial year. These are like long-term debts where installments can need 5, 10, or possibly 20 years.
- Bank loans
- Loans payable (long-term)
- Mortgage payable
- Tax liabilities
The equity segment of the classified balance sheet is exceptionally simple and like a non-classified report.
What is the Accounting Equation?
The accounting equation is used in the double-entry framework and sets up a relation between assets, liabilities, and equity. The equation is introduced as:
Assets = Equity + Liabilities
The equation will likewise remain the same in the classified balance sheet. This implies that when you add all groups of assets, it will be equal to the sum of all categories of equity and liabilities. This is the means by which the Classified balance sheet tallies. Both a classified and an unclassified balance sheet should stick to this equation, regardless of how basic or complex the balance sheet is.
Applying the Accounting equation in a classified balance sheet is a very simple process. To start with, you need to recognize and enter your assets appropriately, allocating them to the right categories.
Taking a look at the balance sheet of RMS Pvt Ltd you will notice that the assets have been categorized into three different groups as Total Fixed Assets, Total Current Assets, and Total Other Assets.
The Current Assets list incorporates all assets that have an expiry date of less than one year. The Fixed Assets category records things like land or a structure, while assets that don't fit into ordinary classifications are placed in the Other Assets classification.
A similar rule holds for the Liabilities section, where you'll list every single current liability, just as those that are long term, like other loans and mortgages.
When the data has been set into the right classifications, you'll add every section separately. At the point when that is finished, you'll need to add each one of the subtotals to show up at your asset total, which is $98200.
With total liabilities, you'll continue on to your liabilities. Balance sheet liabilities, like assets, have been arranged into Current Liabilities and Long-Term Liabilities. When your balances have been added to the right categories, you'll add the subtotals to show up at your total liabilities, which are $59300.
The final segment in your Classified balance sheet, Owner's Equity, is the section where you'll put any stock values, retained earnings, or any additional capital that you or any of your shareholders might have added to the business. Your owner’s equity is $38900.
Have we followed the accounting equation appropriately? We should now tally our sums by placing the figures in the accounting equation:
Assets = Equity +Liabilities
In this way, the equation with our values looks like:
$98200 (Assets) = $38900 (equity)+ $59300 (liabilities)
Our balance sheet follows the equation, and it is in balance.
Classified Balance Sheet Vs Balance Sheet
Both an unclassified and a classified balance sheet incorporate liability, assets, and equity sections, yet an unclassified balance sheet doesn't categorize amounts; it simply sums them under their particular sections.
In a classified balance sheet, financial data is introduced in depth. The parts of assets, liabilities, and equity are separated into more sub-headings for providing in-depth data to the clients. The parts of assets and liabilities are likewise named current and non-current. Large organizations use a classified balance sheet as the format that delivers in-depth data to the clients for better decision-making.
While in the case of an unclassified balance sheet, no such bifurcation of parts is made. In this manner, all details are presented without sub-headings. Yet, it is simpler to prepare, which leads to confusion. Smaller organizations normally follow this format.
Classified balance sheet template
The template usually followed for the Classified balance sheet is as follows:
Benefits of Classified Balance Sheet
- It becomes simpler for the user of the financial statements to comprehend the Classified balance sheet’s information.
- It additionally assists with completing ratio analysis since the sections are named current and non-current.
- It assists the investors with seeing how the organization is performing and the position of different liabilities and assets.
- The bankers can without any complications access the liquidity of an organization through investigating a classified balance sheet.
- Intended to show what a business possesses, what it owes, and what has been invested into the organization, the Classified balance sheet, like the income statement and statement of cash flow, is one of the three fundamental financial statements.
- The classified balance sheet takes it one step ahead by characterizing your three main parts into smaller categories to give more financial data about your business. Once utilized primarily by bigger organizations, small business owners can likewise profit from running a classified balance sheet.
How helpful is the Classified Balance Sheet format?
A classified balance sheet format gives a fresh and perfectly clear view to the user. Despite the fact that balance sheets are made by accountants, they are also used by ordinary investors who probably won't have an accounting foundation. The distinctive subcategories assist an investor with understanding the significance of a specific entry in the Classified balance sheet and the reason it has been put there. It additionally helps investors in their financial analysis and settling on appropriate choices for their ventures.
An investor who is keen on the everyday tasks and profitability of the firm might want to compute the current ratio. In a balance sheet, he would need to profoundly plunge into each segment and read notes explicitly for each liability and asset. In any case, in a classified balance sheet format, such a computation would be direct as the administration has clearly mentioned its current assets and liabilities. It will be not difficult to calculate for a retail investor as well.
A very well-classified data ingrain confidence and trust in the investors and banks. It likewise educates a lot about the executives who are not only about the valuations but also how these have been calculated.
Publishing a classified balance sheet likewise makes it simple for regulators to bring up an issue in the initial stages itself rather than in the last stages when irreversible harm has been finished. It passes on a solid message to the investors that their money is protected as the board is not kidding about the business profits as well as running it morally and within the standards of the market.
We get to learn that Organizations, including private ventures, use the Classified balance sheets to quantify the organization's financial position at a given time. A classified balance sheet puts together the various items on a balance sheet, making the data simpler to use and understand. The more structured format helps administrators in settling on decisions without stressing and figuring out the data.
- A classified balance sheet is a kind of financial record introduced so the sub-parts of assets, liabilities, and equity are recorded so the users improve their understanding of the items of the balance sheets. The more extensive headings are bifurcated into less difficult, smaller headings are used for better clarity of the annual accounts.
- The classifications utilized will change based upon the kind of business you own, and there is no standard method for organizing a classified balance sheet appropriately.
- Classified balance sheets are prepared to make the financial analysis simpler. It also helps in identifying the organization's liquidity position by understanding the number of current assets accessible to meet the current liabilities.