Solvency - Definition, How to Assess, Other Ratios

Solvency - Definition, How to Assess, Other Ratios

Deskera Content Team
Deskera Content Team
Table of Contents
Table of Contents

When we talk about ratios in accounting, Solvency ratios are one of many metrics which are used to analyze whether an organization can stay solvent in the long run. These ratios are analyzed for judging the financial position to learn whether the business is financially sound to meet its long-term commitments. There’s more to this interesting ratio which makes us dive deeper into this metric. Following are the concepts included:

  • What is a Solvency ratio?
  • What is the solvency ratio formula
  • Example of Solvency Ratio
  • Types of solvency ratio
  • What is a good solvency ratio
  • What is a bank’s solvency ratio
  • Why is the Solvency Ratio important in Life Insurance?
  • How Can You understand an Insurer’s Solvency Ratio?
  • Solvency Ratios Measure Financial Risk
  • Limitation of the Solvency Ratio

What is a Solvency Ratio?

A solvency ratio is an essential metric used to see a business' ability to meet long-term debt requirements and is utilized by business lenders. It shows whether an organization's income is adequate to meet its long-term liabilities. It is, hence, considered to be an indicator of its monetary wellbeing. A negative ratio can show some probability that an organization will default on its debt obligations.

These ratios are the interest coverage ratio, the debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio,  debt-to-assets ratio, and the equity ratio. These metrics can help in comparing liquidity metrics which consider a company's ability to meet short-term debts instead of the medium or long-term ones.

What is the solvency ratio formula?

The primary equation for computing the solvency ratio is as follows:

Solvency Ratio = (Net Income + Depreciation) / Liabilities (Short-term Liabilities + Long-term Liabilities)

In this formula, the numerator includes the entity’s current cash flow, while the denominator is comprised of its liabilities. In this way, we can interpret that the solvency ratio decides if an organization's income is satisfactory to pay its liabilities.

By and large, a solvency ratio estimates the size of an organization's profitability and analyzes it to its obligations. By computing a solvency ratio, an investor can get information about how likely an organization will be to keep meeting its debt obligations. A higher ratio demonstrates the monetary strength of the organization.

Example of Solvency Ratio

Let’s take a look at the case of AB Enterprises:

AB Enterprises (USD in millions)

Net Income




Short-term Liabilities


Long-term Liabilities


Solvency Ratio = (55,000 + 25,000) / (94,000 + 177,000)

Solvency Ratio = 0.295 * 100 = 29.5%

What we can interpret from the obtained data is that a business is considered financially strong if it has a solvency ratio exceeding 20%. So, from our example above, it is clear that if AB Enterprises keeps up with the trend each year, it can repay all its debts within four years (100% / 29.5% = Approximately four years).

Types of Solvency Ratio

  • Debt to equity ratio - Debt to equity is known to be perhaps the most utilized debt solvency ratio. It is additionally portrayed as the D/E ratio. The debt to equity ratio is determined by dividing a company's total liabilities with the shareholder's equity—this organization's acquired from the balance shareholder's organization's fiscal reports.
  • Debt Ratio- A debt ratio is a monetary proportion utilized in assessing an organization's monetary influence. It is determined by taking the liabilities and segregating them by total capital. If the debt ratio is higher, it means that the organization is more hazardous. Long-term debts include bank advances, bonds payable, notes payable, and so forth
  • Proprietary Ratio Or Equity Ratio - Proprietary ratios are otherwise called equity ratios. It constructs a connection between the owner's assets and the net assets or capital.
  • Interest Coverage Ratio - The interest coverage ratio is applied to decide if the organization can pay interest on the outstanding debt obligations. It is assessed by segregating the organization's EBIT (Earnings before interest and taxes) with the payment due on debts for the accounting period.

What is a good solvency ratio?

Acceptable solvency ratio changes from one industry to another, yet when as a general rule of thumb, a solvency ratio of under 20% or 30% is viewed as monetarily solid. The lower an organization's solvency ratio, the more prominent the likelihood that the organization will default on its debt obligations.

What is a bank’s solvency ratio?

Bank-oriented ratios, like proficiency efficiency ratio, provision for credit losses (PCL), and net interest margin (NIM) are novel to the financial business. Like organizations in different areas, banks have specific ratios to quantify profitability.

Profitability Ratios: Profitability Ratios are monetary measurements utilized by examiners and investors to gauge and assess the ability of an organization to generate income (profit) relative to revenue, balance sheet assets, operating costs, and shareholders' equity during a particular timeframe. They show how well an organization uses its assets to produce profit and efficiency that are intended to suit its one-of-a-kind business operations. Additionally, since monetary strength is particularly significant for banks, there are likewise a few ratios to gauge solvency.

Solvency: The ability of an organization to meet its long-term financial obligations is called Solvency. At the point when experts wish to find out about the solvency of an organization, they take a look at the total value of its assets contrasted with total liabilities held.

How Does Solvency Ratio Matter in Life Insurance?

When you purchase a life insurance policy, you go into an agreement with the insurer. According to this understanding, you are expected to pay normal charges so that in case of your accidental death, your recipients can record a case and get monetary inclusion from the insurer. Notwithstanding, for the insurer to have the option to give this financial coverage, the insurance agency should be in a stable monetary position.

This is the place where the solvency ratio comes in. There are a variety of life insurance products on the lookout, with a wide range of elements on offer. However, it is the solvency ratio that assists you with figuring out what is genuinely significant - the settling of your insurance claims.

A life insurance provider with a high solvency ratio is bound to be monetarily steady and accordingly, more prepared to pay out your insurance claims and sustain for quite a while. Thus, an insurer’s solvency ratio is an immediate sign of its capacity to pay out claims.

Therefore, by inspecting the solvency ratio of a potential insurer, you can raise the probability of your claims being settled even before you buy the life insurance policy. Additionally, the solvency ratio of an insurance agency can be the urgent element that assists you with figuring out which life insurance plan is a predominant choice.

How Can You View an Insurer’s Solvency Ratio?

It is the obligation of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (or IRDAI) to guarantee that Indian insurers are maintained to specific principles, including a commanded mandated solvency ratio. Therefore, life insurance providers in India are relied upon to keep a solvency ratio of 1.5 (or a solvency margin of 150%).

In any case, even inside these cutoff points, individual life insurance providers vary in their positioning. To decide the suitable life insurance provider for you, you can peruse the solvency ratios of all enrolled insurers in the annual report published on the IRDAI site.

How Solvency Ratios Measure Financial Risk

Surveying Risk with Solvency Ratios:

This group of ratios is intended to assist you with estimating the level of financial risk that your business faces. "Financial risk," in this unique situation, implies the degree to which you have debt obligations that should be met, paying little heed to your cash flow. By taking a look at these ratios, you can evaluate your level of debt and conclude whether this level is suitable for your organization.

Commonly used solvency ratios include:

  • Debt to Equity
  • Debt to Assets
  • Coverage of Fixed Costs
  • Interest Coverage

Understanding your debt to equity:

The debt-to-equity ratio can be calculated with the following equation, utilizing figures from your balance sheet:

D/E = Total Debt/ Owners' (or Stockholder's) Equity

The ratio of debt to owner’s equity or total assets demonstrates the level of monetary influence you're utilizing to upgrade your return. A rising debt-to-equity ratio might imply that further expansions in debt brought about by the acquisition of stock or fixed assets ought to be controlled.

Further developing this ratio includes either paying off debt or increasing the amount of retained earnings in the business until the balance sheet date. For example, can expenses be conceded past the balance sheet date to expand your retained earnings? What might be said about bonuses?

Postponing any planned bonus expense serves to build your retained earnings. As another instance, you may ponder repaying revolving debt (like a credit extension) before the balance sheet date and borrowing again after the balance sheet date.

Understanding your debt to assets:

This ratio estimates the level of a business' resources that are financed with debt, and can be determined utilizing the accompanying equation:

D/A= Total Debt/ Total Assets

This ratio estimates the level of assets financed by banks, contrasted with the percentage that has been financed by the owners. By and large, a debt-to-asset ratio of something like 50% has been viewed as reasonable. A higher ratio demonstrates an overuse of leverage, and it might show potential issues meeting the obligation installments.

Further developing this ratio implies making moves to either build the worth of your resources or to take care of obligation. For instance, you may investigate whether stock or different resources can be given a higher worth. Assuming you go above and beyond taking care of the debt, you'll likewise further develop your present ratio and debt-to-equity ratio.

Understanding your coverage of fixed charges:

Coverage of fixed charges is likewise once in a while called "times fixed charges procured."

It tends to be calculated by:

  • taking your net income before taxes and fixed charges (long-term leases, preferred stock dividends, debt repayment, and so on)
  • dividing by the amount of fixed charges

The subsequent number shows your ability to meet your fixed obligations of different types, — the higher the number, the better.

Clearly, an inability to meet any fixed obligation of the business compromises your business' prosperity. Many working capital credit arrangements will indicate that you should keep up with this ratio at a predetermined level, so the lender has some confirmation that you'll keep on having the option to make your payments.

Understanding your interest coverage:

Otherwise called the " times interest earned ratio," interest coverage is basically the same as the " times fixed charges earned" ratio however centers more narrowly on the interest portion of your debt payments.

To compute this ratio, you can utilize the following equation:

Times interest earned ratio = Operating Income/ Interest expense

By contrasting the ratio of operating income to interest expense, you measure how frequently your interest obligations are covered by income from operations. The higher the ratio, the greater your protection layer and the more capable the business is to meet interest payments. Assuming this ratio is declining over the long run, it's an obvious sign that your financial risk is expanding.

Limitation of the Solvency Ratio

Even though the solvency ratio is a helpful measure, there is one region where it misses the mark. It doesn't factor in an organization's capacity to gain new funding sources in the long term, like assets from stock or bonds. For such an explanation, it ought to be utilized alongside different kinds of analysis to give an extensive outline of a business’s solvency.

Wrap Up

Before an individual or association invests or lends to an organization, they should be certain that the entity being referred to can stay solvent over the long term. Hence interested stakeholders use solvency ratios to evaluate an organization's ability to take care of its debts in the long term.

A high solvency ratio means steadiness, while a low ratio signals monetary shortcoming. To get a clear understanding of the organization's liquidity and solvency, potential financial backers utilize the measurement along with others, for example, the debt-to-equity ratio, the debt-to-capital ratio, and that's just the beginning.

Key Takeaways

  • A solvency ratio is an overall proportion of solvency, as it estimates an association's actual cash flow, instead of net income, by adding depreciation and other non-cash expenses to assess an organization's ability to remain above water.
  • It gauges this cash flow capacity with relation to all liabilities. A solvency ratio assesses an organization's long-term health by assessing its repayment ability for its long-term debt and the interest on that obligation.
  • Solvency Ratios are the ratios that are determined to pass judgment on the monetary place of the association from a long-term solvency point of view. These ratios measure the company's ability to fulfill its long-term obligations and are firmly followed by financial backers to comprehend and appreciate the ability of the business to meet its long-term liabilities and help them in decision making for long-term investment of their assets in the business.

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